Plant-based protein feed
Soya. By the set and ratio of essential amino acids, soy protein is the most complete and close in quality to the protein of animal feed. Since soy grains contain a lot of oil, they are usually first subjected to industrial processing, extracting oil, which is used for food purposes. Mostly poultry is fed not natural grain, but soybean meal or meal. However, in farms where soybean is grown, it is used to feed birds without pre-treatment. And although in this case the calorie content of the feed is very high, it should be remembered that raw soybeans contain a special substance that inhibits the secretion of digestive juices in the bird’s body and thereby significantly reduces the absorption of proteins. During the heat treatment of grain, this substance is destroyed.
Peas. Peas contain all the essential amino acids necessary for the normal functioning of the bird’s body. It is included in crushed and ground form in bird feed. Ground peas have a specific taste and smell, because of which birds eat it reluctantly.
Sunflower meal and meal. This is the most common feed intended for birds. The composition of sunflower meal includes crude protein (32-40%), fats and amino acids, in particular methionine. The latter favorably affects the growth and development of young animals and serves as a source of sulfur, necessary for redox processes occurring in the body. In addition, methionine is involved in the formation of syrin, creatine, cystine, choline, which play a huge role in the metabolism, and regulates fat metabolism in the liver. Methionine is also necessary for the formation of feather cover in birds. Sunflower meal contains slightly more crude protein and less fat than in meal.
Flaxseed meal and meal. Flaxseed meal contains about 35% crude protein and up to 8% fat. In the meal there is a slightly larger amount of protein and less fat. Flaxseed meal and meal are a complete protein feed, but when soaked in water, they swell, forming a thick mucous mass. This mucus is even beneficial for birds, as it has a positive effect on digestion. It is worth noting that flaxseed products sometimes contain hydrocyanic acid, which is dangerous for birds and other animals. Therefore, before including flaxseed meal and meal in the diet of pheasants, food must be checked in the laboratory for the absence of this acid.
Soybean meal and meal. This food contains 40-45% crude protein and a small amount of fat.
Cotton cake and meal. In regions where cotton is cultivated, this is the main type of vegetable protein feed for poultry. Cotton cake contains 36-38% crude protein and about 5-7% fat, meal, respectively, 42-43 and 1-1.5%.
The protein of cotton cake and meal contains many essential amino acids.
It should be remembered that some varieties of cotton have in their composition, mainly in the shells of seeds, the toxic substance gossypol, which has the property of gradually accumulating in the body. The amount of this substance, depending on which is used to obtain oilcakes and meal seeds and their pre-treatment, is not the same. In cake it contains about 0.1-H), 3%, and in meal – up to 0.8%. In this regard, experts do not recommend feeding pheasants to cottonseed meal obtained from unprocessed cotton seeds. It is advisable to check the cottonseed meal and meal before feeding the birds in the laboratory for the content of gossypol.
Peanut meal and meal. Despite the fact that in Russia peanuts are not cultivated, peanut meal and meal are often imported from other countries and used to feed poultry. Peanut meal contains 46-48% crude protein and about 10% fat. In the meal, the amount of protein sometimes exceeds 50%, and the fat content ranges from 1 to 2%.
Hemp cake and meal. Hemp cake from unprocessed seeds contains about 33% protein, and from processed – 35-38%. In the meal, the amount of protein is slightly higher.
Since hemp feed contains narcotic substances, they are given only to adult birds in a relatively small amount (no more than 5%).
Fodder yeast. Fodder yeast, which is a product of biochemical processing of fiber, is obtained at hydrolysis or sulfate-alcohol plants using pure cultures of yeast cells. Dry fodder yeast is not only a valuable protein, but also a vitamin feed. Does it contain vitamins B1? B2, nicotinic and pantothenic acids. The total amount of crude protein in dry fodder yeast ranges from 45 to 52%. In the diet of birds, this food is included in an amount of 3-7% of the dry portion of the diet.
Phosphatides. The by-product obtained from the production of vegetable oils from sunflower seeds, soybeans and other oilseeds, phosphatides, is valued for the content of poultry fatty acids that are important for the body but not synthesized in it.
The addition of phosphatides to the diet increases the egg production of pheasants and their resistance to diseases. As a rule, the so-called phosphatide concentrate containing about 50% phosphatides, 45-52% oil and 2-3% water is used for feeding birds.
Wheat bran. Contain shells and a small amount of wheat germ seeds. Wheat bran is of certain value as fodder for birds, because it is rich in phosphorus in the form of an organic compound – phytin. In addition, bran contains B vitamins and a large amount of fiber (7.5-10%).