Protein Chicken Feed
Protein is an integral part of the cells of a living organism. The need for protein food in birds during the laying period is especially growing, since protein is necessary for the formation of egg protein.
Protein is well digested and absorbed by the body of the bird. They are rich in legume grains, oilcake, fish, meat, clover, alfalfa flour and vice versa.
The fullness of proteins characterizes the presence in them of a large number of amino acids, which are necessary for the growth and development of a living organism. Part of the amino acids comes from feed, and part is synthesized by the body. The absence of vital amino acids – such as lysine, tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, arginine, methionine, histidine, threonine, valine – disrupts the normal functioning of the body.
With a protein deficiency or an incorrect ratio of amino acids in the diet, the development of birds is delayed, their growth slows down, egg shell formation is disturbed, plumage is stiff and brittle, spermatogenesis is reduced, etc.
By origin, protein feed is divided into plant and animal.
Protein feeds of animal origin are most valuable, since they are rich not only in high-grade protein, but also in B vitamins, as well as minerals.
Milk products. Dairy and sour-milk products in a homestead economy are more affordable protein feed than meat and bone meal and fish meal.
Whole milk is rarely fed to birds. Most often, they use yogurt, cottage cheese, skim milk, and liquid milk waste. All dairy products have high biological value, and the protein contained in them is well absorbed by the feathered organism. In addition, dairy products include sugar, vitamins and minerals.
Adult chickens are given acidophilic milk prepared in pure cultures. The chicks are also fed whey, which, although not too rich in protein, contains easily digestible minerals. They give serum and chickens during the laying period.
Based on skim milk, yogurt and other products, wet mixers are prepared.
It should be remembered that dairy products should not be stored in galvanized dishes. In this case, the bird may experience zinc oxide poisoning.
It is recommended to periodically introduce feeds prepared on the basis of milk powder into the diet of poultry.
Milk powder contains easily digestible both adult chickens and chickens, nutrients: 30
33% protein, 0.5-1.5% fat, 44-47% milk sugar, 7-8% ash elements, 5-7% water. Young milk powder is given in an amount of 3% of the dry portion of the diet. To increase the usefulness of the protein part of the diet, the mash, prepared on the basis of milk powder, is sometimes given to an adult bird (0.5-1.5%).
A fish. For feeding birds, as a rule, only non-commercial varieties of fish are used, as well as small fish unsuitable for human consumption. Before feeding the fish to the birds, it is boiled and crushed.
It is necessary to periodically include fishmeal in the diet of poultry, which is one of the most nutritious protein feeds. Fishmeal is made from non-commercial varieties of fish and fish waste. The protein contained in it is easily absorbed by the bird’s body and contains the optimal ratio of essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), so fish meal is high. biological value.
Fishmeal contains from 46 to 60% protein and up to 15-18% fat, almost all amino acids, many minerals and vitamins. From day to day, 3 to 12% of the feed weight is fed to chicks from fish meal. In combination with meat and bone meal (in a 2: 1 ratio), it forms the basis of a complete protein in the diet.
Fatty fish meal (15% fat) is a perishable product. The fat contained in fishmeal is quickly oxidized, so it is stored in a cool place and fed to birds only fresh. Many poultry farmers use low-fat fishmeal, adding it to the feed at the rate of 1 teaspoon per 1 adult bird.
Fat-free flour contains protein (up to 60%), Yasser (2%), water (up to 10%), calcium phosphate (15-25%), iodine and B vitamins.
Each poultry breeder needs to know that when feeding chickens with fishmeal, its meat acquires a specific wap and taste. For this reason, 2 weeks before poultry slaughter, fishmeal is excluded from its diet.
Meat and bone meal. Meat and bone meal is obtained from the waste of meat processing enterprises. Nutritional
This product is slightly inferior in value to fishmeal. Meat and bone meal contains a protein rich in lysine, but poor in other amino acids. The composition of meat and bone meal also includes fat (11%), ash elements (up to 30%) and vitamins A and E.
This product is included in the diet of young animals no earlier than 30 days of age and in an amount not exceeding 3%. Adult birds are fed meat and bone meal in an amount of 5-7% of the total feed volume.
Meat flour. Meat flour is a product of processing the internal organs of animals and meat trimmings. This flour differs from meat and bone one with a higher protein content (56-64%) and a lower ash content (12-14%). The amount of fat in meat flour can reach 18%. This product is introduced into the diet of poultry in the same amount as meat and bone meal.
Blood meal. One of the richest protein and amino acid feeds is blood meal. It is produced from the blood of animals with the addition of about 5% bone meal.
Blood flour is fed to the bird in limited quantities, since an excess in the diet of this product causes digestive upset in chickens. Optimum consider the presence of not more than 3% of blood flour in the diet.
Blood flour contains about 80% of a protein with a full amino acid composition, 3% fat and 6% ash elements.
Feather flour. Feather flour is made from the waste of downy feather raw materials.
This product is significantly inferior in terms of amino acid content to meat, fish, meat and bone and blood meal. In the diet of birds, feather meal is introduced in an amount not exceeding 2%.
Egg. One of the most complete animal feed, containing, in addition to protein, many vitamins and mineral salts. Chicken egg is an indispensable food for chicks. Adult birds
boiled chicken egg is included in the diet during the laying period, as well as during molting.
Each poultry breeder has his own way of preparing the egg mixture for poultry, but the following is most common: the egg is grated or finely chopped with a knife, grated carrots and 1 tablespoon of white crackers (semolina, bran) are added to it. All are thoroughly mixed and fed to chickens.
Silkworm pupae. In regions where silkworms are bred, silkworm pupae are often used to feed poultry.
This complete animal feed contains about 55-57% protein and about 20% fat.
Pupae are fed only to adult birds in the amount of 5% of the diet.
Flour worms. Flour worms are called the larval form of a large flour hrushchak – a black beetle.
Flour worms are yellowish-brown, cylindrical in shape, 25-30 mm long. Inexperienced poultry farmers often confuse the large flour hrushchak with the small one, which is smaller (body length up to 5.5 mm) and a rounded elongated body in black.
Although the poultry eagerly eats a small Khrushchak, it should not be specially bred, since larvae can climb into products (cereals, flour, etc.).
Flour cereals are bred in plexiglass cages measuring 35 x 25 x 15 cm. To make it, you can use a shade from a fluorescent lamp made of frosted plexiglass. First you need to cut the workpiece of the required length and glue the side walls along the width. From above, on one side of the workpiece, it is necessary to glue the ventilation, and on the other hand, grooves for the cover. Dichloroethane is recommended for bonding parts.
A simpler and more affordable cage for breeding flour worms is a low wooden box with smooth walls with curved walls, studded from the inside with a tin.
You can also use iron baking sheets with a side height of about 15 cm, the side walls of which are bent 3-4 cm inward. The baking sheet is covered with a lid (frame with a fine metal mesh) so that worms and beetles do not creep out. The wooden box is closed with the same lid.
Bran, old flour, oat flakes, coarsely ground crackers with a layer of 5 are poured into the breeding box
Yu cm, and on top they put cotton fabric, which is periodically wetted. Then they plant in a box of flour worms or adult flour hruschak.
To feed flour worms, turnips, beets, cabbage, raw and boiled potatoes are used. So that the feed does not mold, you can make special feeders for it from a tin can with openings on the bottom and side. The feeders are buried in the bran a little more than half. When only one trash remains from vegetables and bran, they are replaced with fresh ones.
As a drinker for flour worms, a small bubble is used, which is buried down the neck in bran. A wick of long-fiber cotton wool or linen is inserted into the vial.
The cycle of development of Khrushchakov at room temperature is quite long, therefore, to accelerate it, the cage must be placed in a warm (22-25 ° C) and darkened place.
Small worms appear in the cage after about 7-8 weeks, and their development to the pupal stage lasts 3 more
4 months The entire cycle of the development of the flour crust from an egg to an adult insect takes about six months.
To ensure a large number of poultry with flour worms, at least 2-3 cages should be made. For feeding birds, worms are taken from only one cage, leaving only 15-20 pupae.
Pupae left for breeding are placed in the second cage, and all worms are selected from the first and fed to the birds.
After all flour worms have been selected in the first box, in the second by this time new ones from the eggs laid by the females will appear. With the advent of the pupae, some of them are planted in the third drawer. In the first, by this time, flour worms will reappear, etc.
For food birds, mealworms should be taken from the fabric, where they crawl for pupation.
Earthworms. A useful top dressing for poultry is earthworms, which can be specially grown on a personal plot.
Earthworms are bred in boxes or trenches, which are filled with compost or manure, weed grass, fallen leaves, rotten vegetables and fruits.
For one season in a homestead farm on an area of 2 m2, you can get more than 20 kg of the biological mass of worms.
5 g per bird per day is added to the worm feed. When earthworms are used in the diet, the bird’s daily gain increases noticeably, shedding is performed painlessly and in a short time. ‘ one
Apple moth. When feeding the chicks, you can use the larvae of the apple moth — a small butterfly with a wingspan of about 2 cm. It lays eggs on the lower surface of the leaves, fruits and shoots of apple, pear and quince.
On the 8-10th day, caterpillars are hatched from the eggs, which are collected and fed to the birds.
Larvae of flies. When feeding chicks, you can use the larvae of flies, or maggots. Breeding flies is not difficult, and under favorable conditions in less than a week you can get a sufficient number of their larvae.
For breeding maggots, a large glass jar is suitable, into which another container is inserted upside down (for example, a tin can). The diameter of the container should be a few centimeters smaller than the diameter of the glass jar.
On the inner container should be put a bait for flies – a piece of spoiled meat or fish. The structure thus prepared is placed on the street, and when flies
lay eggs on the bait, transfer to a warm place under a canopy. Larvae hatching from eggs are taken deep into the bait, and before pupation they leave it, creep out and fall to the bottom of the glass jar. At this time, they are given to the chicks, placed in a glass feeder with smooth sheer walls.
There is another way to grow maggot, which allows you to provide poultry with larvae all year round.
With this method, indoor flies that can breed all year round are used to grow maggot. The larvae of houseflies are omnivorous and develop well in decaying substrates of both plant and animal origin.
The development of larvae and pupae primarily depends on the temperature of the substrate. When flies are cultivated at home at a temperature of 22-25 ° C, the emergence of larvae from eggs occurs after 12-18 hours, the development of larvae to the stage of the pupae lasts about 7 days, the development of the pupa until the adult fly takes off – 8-10 days.
To provide maggots for birds, it is necessary to have a cage for keeping adult flies and dishes for larvae.
The initial culture of a housefly can be obtained in the warm season by putting rosettes with bait on the street. Only products of plant origin (steamed bran moistened with kvass or diluted yeast bread crusts) are taken for the bait, since not only indoor, but also meat flies lay eggs on meat and fish.
The eggs laid on the bait are transferred with tweezers to a sterile substrate intended for growing larvae. Maggots can be grown in glass jars filled with half small chips, which are pre-boiled in water for 30 minutes. Then the chips are moistened with boiled and chilled milk, covered with gauze soaked in milk, and the eggs of flies are placed on top.
The jar is periodically examined and, if the larvae grow unevenly, the substrate and gauze are again wetted with milk.
As a rule, after 5 days, maggots reach 10-12 mm in length, and after 7-8 days they can be fed to birds. But first, the largest larvae are selected and placed for pupation in a separate jar with slightly moistened sand.
The flies that emerged from the pupae are placed in a cage made of a wire or wooden frame measuring 20 x 20 x 30 cm, covered with a net or gauze.
For ease of maintenance, a hole with a diameter of 15 cm is cut out in the wall of the cage, to which a gauze sleeve, tightened with a cord, is attached.
The cage can contain up to 1000 or more flies, which will lay 1-1.5 thousand eggs daily. This amount is enough to receive about 200 g of maggots every day.
The flies contained in the cage are fed with milk and a 5% sugar solution. Milk and sugar solution are poured into sockets and put them on the bottom of the charge. And so that insects do not drown in sockets, they put gauze swabs and pieces of filter paper in them.
To collect eggs, several rosettes with steamed bran and kvass moistened bread crusts are placed in the cage.
The cage should be periodically cleaned of dead flies (the life of these insects is on average 20-30 days), and instead of them put pupae.
Bloodworm. Mosquito larvae are well known to anglers and aquarium fish lovers. Some poultry farmers use bloodworms as food for chicks. In terms of protein and minerals, bloodworms are not a very nutritious food, so their norm in the diet of birds is not limited.
May beetles. For feeding birds, May beetles are used in dried and crushed form, adding powder to soft feeds.
May bugs are harvested in late April – early May, when the flight of beetles overwintered in the land begins. In the morning and afternoon, beetles sit on trees and can be easily assembled by spreading white fabric under a tree and shaking branches.
The collected beetles are dried in an oven, crushed and stored in tightly closed glass jars.
Protein feeds of plant origin are less nutritious than animals, but they are no less useful for chickens.
Soya. In terms of the set and ratio of essential amino acids, soy protein is closest in quality to animal feed protein.
Since soy grains contain a lot of oil, they are usually first subjected to industrial processing, extracting oil, which is used for food and industrial purposes. Poultry is mainly fed not with natural grain, but with soybean meal or meal. However, in farms where soybean is grown, it is used to feed birds without pre-treatment.
Although the calorie content of soy is very high, it should be remembered that the raw grains of this plant contain a special substance that inhibits the excretion of digestive juices in the bird’s body and thereby significantly reduces the absorption of proteins. During the heat treatment of grain, this substance is destroyed.
Soy in the form of heat-treated grain is introduced into the diet of poultry in an amount up to 80% of the total weight of the grain mixture.
Peas. Peas contain all the essential amino acids necessary for the normal functioning of the bird’s body. In poultry feed it is used in crushed and ground form.
Ground peas have a specific taste and smell, because of which birds eat it reluctantly. Peas are included in the diet of chickens in an amount of 10% of the dry mixture.
Beans are horse. Due to the limited cultivation of this crop, it is rarely used for feeding birds. However, if there are beans in the farm, they are introduced into the diet of chicks in the amount of 5-7% of the main feed.
Sunflower meal and meal. The most common feed used for poultry. The composition of sunflower meal includes crude protein (32-40%), fats and amino acids, in particular methionine. The latter favorably affects the growth and development of young animals and serves as a source of sulfur, necessary for redox processes occurring in the body of chickens. In addition, methionine is involved in the formation of serine, creatine, cystine, choline, which play a huge role in metabolism, and regulates fat metabolism in the liver. Also methionine is necessary for the formation of feather cover in birds.
In sunflower meal, there is slightly more crude protein and less fat than in meal.
In the diet of chickens, sunflower meal and meal are introduced in an amount of 3-10%, in the diet of adult birds – up to 15-17%.
Linen cake and meal. Flaxseed meal contains about 35% crude protein and up to 8% fat. In the meal there is a slightly larger amount of protein and less fat.
Flaxseed meal and meal are a complete protein feed, when soaked in water they swell, forming a thick mucus-like mass. This mucus is useful for birds, since it has a positive effect on digestion.
1, It is worth noting that flaxseed products sometimes contain hydrocyanic acid, which is dangerous for birds and other animals.
Before including flaxseed meal and meal in the diet of the bird, they must be checked in the laboratory for the absence of this acid.
Flaxseed meal and meal include in the diet of birds in the same amount as sunflower.
Soybean meal and meal. This food contains 40-45% crude protein and a small amount of fat. Soybean meal and meal are introduced into the diet in an amount of 10% of the main feed.
Cotton cake and meal. In regions where cotton is cultivated, this is the main type of vegetable protein feed for poultry. Cotton cake contains 36-38% crude protein and about 5-7% fat, meal, 42-43 and 1-1.5%, respectively.
The protein of cotton cake and meal contains many essential amino acids.
It should be remembered that some varieties of cotton have in their composition, mainly in the shells of seeds, a toxic substance – gossypol, which has the property of gradually accumulating in the body.
The amount of this substance, depending on what is used to obtain the cake and meal, seeds and their pre-treatment is not the same.
In cake it contains about 0.1-0.3%, and in meal – up to 0.8%. In this regard, experts do not recommend feeding cottonseed meal obtained from unprocessed cotton seeds to a bird. ‘
In addition, it is advisable to check the gossypol content in the laboratory for cotton cake and meal before feeding the bird.
Cotton cake and meal, if they do not contain gossypol, are introduced into the diet of chicks from 2-3 weeks of age in the amount of 3-5% of the main feed, gradually increasing the rate to 10-12%. An adult bird is recommended to feed cotton cake and meal in the amount of 15-18%.
Peanut cake and meal. Despite the fact that on the territory of Russia peanuts and meal are often imported from other countries and are used to feed poultry.
Peanut meal contains 46–48% crude protein and about 10% fat. In the meal, the amount of protein sometimes exceeds 50%, and the fat content ranges from 1 to 2%.
Peanut meal and meal are introduced into the diet of chicks in the amount of 8-10, and in the diet of adult birds – 15-17% of the mass of the grain mixture.
Hemp cake and meal. Hemp cake from unprocessed seeds contains about 33% protein, and from processed – 35-38%. In meal, the amount of protein is slightly higher.
Since hemp feed contains narcotic substances, they are given only to adult birds in a relatively small amount (no more than 5%).
Fodder yeast. Fodder yeast, which is a product of biochemical processing of fiber, is obtained at hydrolysis or sulphate-alcohol plants using pure cultures of yeast cells.
Dry fodder yeast is not only a valuable protein, but also a vitamin feed. It contains vitamins Bj, B2, nicotinic and pantothenic acids.
The total amount of crude protein in dry fodder yeast ranges from 45 to 52%. In the diet of poultry, this food is included in an amount of 3-7% of the mass of the dry part of the diet.
Other yeast – baker’s and brewer’s – in the amount of 2 g per adult bird per day is often used to feed chickens.
Phosphatides. The by-product obtained from the production of vegetable oils from sunflower seeds, soybeans and other oilseeds, phosphatides, is valued for the content of poultry fatty acids that are important for the body but not synthesized in it.
The addition of phosphatides to the diet increases the egg production of birds and their resistance to disease.
As a rule, the so-called phosphatide concentrate containing about 50% phosphatides, 45-52% oil and 2-3% water is used for feeding birds. The concentrate is recommended to be added to the feed in an amount of 1 g per 1 kg of live weight of the bird.
Wheat bran. Contain shells and a small amount of wheat germ seeds. Wheat bran is of certain value as fodder for birds, because it is rich in phosphorus in the form of an organic compound – phytin. In addition, bran contains B vitamins and a large amount of fiber (7.5-10%).
Wheat bran is introduced into the diet of chicks and adult birds in an amount not exceeding 5-7% by weight of dry feed.