Feed for poultry, their characteristics
Poultry feed is divided by origin and features into the following groups: cereals, processed products
agricultural raw materials, animal origin, natural vitamin feed (green and succulent), mineral feed.
Cereal cereal feed
Cereal cereal feeds occupy the bulk of the diet both by weight and by total nutrition, being the main source of carbohydrates, of which poultry food should be predominant. Cereals feed cereals contain up to 70% starch, from 8 to 20% protein, from 2.2 to 10.5% fiber, 1.5-4% minerals, 2-8% fat. In the diet, good quality grain with a moisture content of 14-16% should be used.
Corn. This is one of the best feeds for poultry. It surpasses all other grain feed in energy content. It is rich in carbohydrates (up to 70%) and contains very little fiber. 100 g of grain contains 330 calories of metabolic energy, which is 10-30% higher than the level of other cereals. At the same time, corn is poor in proteins (8–13%), and its low-quality protein is poor in certain essential amino acids. Therefore, when it is fed in large quantities, feed containing complete protein is added to the diet. legumes and animal origin. The low level of fiber in it allows you to feed its young in crushed form from the first days of life.
In the diet of poultry of egg breeds, corn is fed in an amount of up to 40-50% of the total grain volume.
Wheat is slightly inferior to corn in calorific value, but contains slightly more protein (12-14%), and it is more complete than the protein of other cereal feeds. It has a high content of B vitamins and vitamin E.
For feeding birds, non-food grade wheat, the so-called feed wheat, is used. In the diet for adult chickens enter up to 40-50%.
The best fodder culture in terms of amino acid content. It is distinguished by a high content of lysine and choline.
In general, the protein contains 9-11% (fluctuations from 6 to 13%). The disadvantage of this food is the increased fiber content due to the shell. up to 15% by weight. In homestead farms, it is advisable to feed part of the daily norm of barley in sprouted form. Crushed barley is introduced into the composition of flour feed mixtures after preliminary screening of the film membrane, in an amount of 30-40% for an adult and 15-20% for young animals.
Of great value are the red varieties that contain provitamin A. carotene. It reduces the quality of millet shell-film. By the presence of protein and minerals it differs little from corn. The protein content in millet is in the range of 10-12%, fat 2-5%, crude fiber. 5-8%.
Chickens up to one month of age are fed millet peeled from the film in the form of millet. Into a daily diet enter up to 20%.
Contains pantothenic acid (12 μg / g), which ensures the active state of the bird. The crude protein content ranges from 8 to 15% in oats. It is poor in amino acids such as methionine, histidine, and tryptophan. The feed value of oats is reduced by the presence of a grain shell. For feeding poultry, it is advisable to use holoserous varieties. Oats are an extremely valuable food during the breeding season. Whole grains are best fed sprouted.
Rye. it is used for feeding poultry in extremely rare cases, when the farm lacks other grain feed, and in very limited quantities. Its limitations are associated with possible digestive disorders and a decrease in feed intake (appetite).
It has a high protein content (14-15%). Due to the fact that freshly harvested grain contains 2.5-3% of mucus, which, when swollen in the body, causes digestive upsets, rye is allowed to be fed three months after harvesting, and it is generally undesirable for chickens up to 2-3 months to enter them in the diet. Adult birds, its specific gravity in the number of cereals should not exceed 7-8%.
Triticale. hybrid of wheat with rye. The chemical composition has much in common with wheat and its richer in protein content. 15% and lysine. 4.1 g / kg
Perhaps the inclusion in the diet in the range of 5-10%.
Chumiza. both in nutrition and in appearance is very similar to millet, but smaller. Its use in diets is limited due to the small sown area.
Bran. a product of flour milling, consists of particles of grain shells and impurities of flour and germ. Depending on the type of processed grain, bran can be wheat, rye, barley, rice and other bran. By the degree of grinding. coarse (large) and thin (small). Their nutritional value depends on the greater the presence of certain particles: the more flour particles, the higher the nutritional value. In practice, mainly wheat bran is used in small quantities. 5-8%. Limitations are associated with a high content of poorly digestible fiber. The protein content on average is in the range of 10-12%. Bran is rich in phosphorus, which is in large part in the form of phytin, the presence of which when they are fed has a laxative effect. Bran contains a lot of potassium, but not enough sodium, calcium and chlorine. They are rich in vitamins B1, B2, choline.
Protein feed of animal origin
Protein feeds of animal origin include waste from the fish and meat industry, dairy products.
Fish flour. high-quality feed with a protein content of up to 70%, with a favorable ratio of lysine and methionine. In the diet of birds include 3-7%. Two weeks before slaughter, feeding is stopped to prevent the smell of fish in the meat.
Meat flour. contains over 60% high quality protein. In feeding, the bird is used to balance the diet by amino acid composition. An adult bird is given 3-7%, mododyak. 1-5%.
Meat and bone meal. protein and mineral feed. It contains up to 50% protein, complete in lysine, but deficient in methionine and trintophan. In the diet for poultry include in the same amounts as meat flour.
Blood meal. contains over 80% protein deficient in methionine, isoleucine and glycine. It is introduced to balance the diet in an amount of 2-3%.
Feather flour. used in bird feeding as a source of replenishment of the amino acids methionine and cystine. The total protein content is more than 80%.
Flour from krill. contains 50% protein. Often used in broiler feeding (up to 7-10%).
Waste meat. It. meat of animals that died from non-communicable diseases. In no case should a bird be fed raw meat. Its taste will lead to biting. It is fed only after thorough digestion in an amount of not more than 10% of the amount of feed fed to the head chopped through a meat grinder, as part of wet mixes. To prepare wet mash, broth is also used.
Skim milk (reverse), whey and other dairy products have high biological value. Contain B vitamins and easily digestible minerals. Exceptionally valuable poultry feed. When feeding young animals from a very early age, they promote active growth and good development. In adult birds, they provide high productivity and the production of hatching eggs with high qualities. With a wet or combined type of feeding, dairy products are used to prepare wet mixes. Reverse is useful, especially for chickens, to drink instead of water. Adult hens are given 40-50 g, and chickens, depending on age, 5-20 g per day.
Souring dairy products to birds, and even more so to young animals, are not given. The milk that started to turn sour is brought to full fermentation. It is not allowed to drink and store it in galvanized dishes. Compounds of lactic acid with zinc cause serious illness.
Herbal flour. widely used in the production of animal feed. Serves as a source of carotenoids and vitamins. 3-5% are introduced into the diet.
It is necessary to store herbal flour in closed paper bags to prevent the access of air and light, in which vitamins are destroyed very soon.
In home gardens and small farms, especially in the summer, for the replenishment of vitamins in the body of the bird, green mass is widely used, primarily crops such as alfalfa, clover, peas in the budding phase, nettle, etc. Fresh young grass is crushed and given in mixtures with flour cereal feed. For harvesting in the autumn-winter period, mowed grass is dried in shaded places and stored in attics suspended in bunches or tinned.
As vitamin feeds are used in feeding, also coniferous, carrot flour. Coniferous flour in the diet is limited to 3-4%. With greater feeding, feed intake decreases, and the appetite of the bird decreases.
An excellent natural vitamin feed for poultry is fodder cabbage, which remains on the root of the green until the frosts. Feed her in finely chopped form. Pantry Vitamin A is considered red carrots. Especially useful in the autumn. Chickens are fed 15-20 g per head, adults. up to 30 g per day.
An excellent source of vitamin A is pumpkin with yellow flesh, in addition, its seeds have anthelmintic properties.
In addition to these vitamin feeds, tubers are also used for poultry.
A good carbohydrate feed is potatoes, which the bird eats readily. Greened potatoes, sprouts and water in which the potatoes were cooked, it is not recommended to feed the bird.
Sugar beets contain up to 16% sugar. They feed it raw in the amount of 50-60% of the mass of dry feed. Jerusalem artichoke and turnips are also suitable for food.
To provide the bird with vitamin juicy food for the winter, a silo is laid, which in its qualities is close to the green mass of plants from which it is harvested.
Grain, meadow forbs, cabbage and corn leaves, beet and carrot tops are the raw materials for silage, i.e. carbohydrate rich plants. Before laying in the silo, plastic bags, other containers, the green mass is crushed to a size of 0.5 cm and, as it is filled, well compacted with subsequent hermetic isolation. For better feed fermentation, up to 10% of sugar beets and carrots are added to the silage. After 1-1.5 months, the silage mass ripens and is ready to feed hens of 30-40 g per head, either in a mixture with other feeds, or separately.
It is important to feed vitamin feed to the bird on the eve and during the breeding season to obtain high-quality, biologically complete hatching eggs.
Mineral feed. Adult hens constantly lay eggs and spend 2 g of calcium on each of them for the formation of shells. Therefore, it is necessary to feed mineral feeds daily. Constantly they are necessary for growing young animals.
Sources of mineral feed for poultry are:
a piece of chalk. contains 37% calcium. They are fed in ground form from separate feeders or in a mixture with other feeds;
ground shell. for an adult bird with a fraction size of 2-5 mm, for young animals. 0.5-2 mm. It contains up to 38% calcium;
Ground egg shells can also be used after heat treatment. A good source of mineral feed is bone meal containing 28% calcium and 14% phosphorus.
The sodium requirement of the chicken body is covered by feeding sodium chloride. The bird is characterized by increased sensitivity to table salt, so you need to add it carefully: adult hens up to one gram per head, young animals. 0.3-0.5 g depending on age.
Compound feeds are a mixture of crushed fodder products and microadditives that provide complete feeding of poultry. They are made in loose and granular form or in the form of cereals.
In granules, biologically active substances are better preserved, the bird is deprived of the opportunity to select individual components, which means that it consumes all the components of the feed. Compound feeds are made according to recipes separately for each age group and depending on the physiological state of the bird with different size fractions.
Full-fledged compound feeds provide high productivity and good development of repair young growth.
Compound feeds for breeding chickens are enriched with an increased level of vitamins such as A, D3, B2, B6 and E. 
Making poultry diets
The more diverse the set of components included in the diet for poultry, the more complete it is. Especially good results when growing poultry can be obtained by feeding several types of grain.
The approximate norm of chicken feed requirements per year is: 36 kg of grain, 4. animal feed, 2. mineral supplements, 9. juicy-vitamin, 3.5 kg of yeast, 100 g 120 g of fish oil.
The need for feed depends on the specific conditions of poultry, the environment.
Laying chicken has a great need for calcium, because 95% of the egg shell is pure calcium: This need depends on the productivity of the chicken. On average, over a year, a chicken weighing 1.5 kg with an egg production of 250 eggs forms 15 kg of egg mass, of which 1.5 kg falls on the eggshell.
Feeding chickens. After hatching in chickens, the source of water and nutrition in the first hours of life is the residual yolk, which resolves after 5-7 days. Despite the presence of a residual yolk, it is necessary to start feeding as early as possible so that the chickens do not peck the litter, litter, which can lead to intestinal diseases.
For the first feeding, the chickens are given corn crushed and sifted through a fine sieve, millet, barley groats, wheat bran, and finely chopped eggs. From 3. 5 days of age, meal (soybean, sunflower), dry animal feed (fishmeal), feed (hydrolysis) yeast, mineral feed in the form of finely divided or grated chalk, shells are introduced into the diet.
Until 30 days of age, feeds screened from shells are introduced into the diet of chickens. From 2 months of age, they are gradually accustomed to eating whole grains. Millet is fed from 10-15 days of age. In separate feeders, coarse sand is constantly kept.
Weak, retarded chickens are planted and provided with better feed. It is necessary to constantly monitor that from the first days all the chickens are fed up to fill and be filled with goiters, which establish them by probing selectively in separate groups.
Insufficient protein in animal feed can be made up by increasing the digestibility of vegetable feed protein. For this, when keeping chickens on a deep litter, it is advisable to feed a vitamin B2 concentrate.
Trace elements should be supplemented with trace elements and vitamins. They must be thoroughly mixed with food. For this, such top dressing is first added to a small amount of feed, then the rate is gradually increased.  Chickens from 3-5 days old need to be given gravel, which is not mineral fertilizing, but it is necessary for poultry, since its presence in the muscle stomach promotes grinding of feed, contributes to better digestion of nutrients and increases feed utilization by 20- thirty%. Gravel means finely divided minerals or pebbles of various compositions. For a bird, quartz or granite pebbles are better; other gravel is quickly destroyed in the stomach and excreted with droppings. The optimal particle size of gravel for chickens up to a month of age is 1-2 mm, 1-3 months of age 3-4 mm, 3-5 months of age. 4-5 mm, for adult chickens. 5.7 mm. It is not recommended to give sand to chickens instead of gravel, as this can cause digestive upset. In addition, the sand is mixed with droppings, sticks to the legs of chickens in the form of dirty balls on the claws.
When raising chickens, it is necessary to monitor their development. For this, chickens in an amount of at least 50 goals are selected and weighed once every 10 days.
Chicken meat breeds are characterized by a high growth rate and exactingness to feed, therefore it is advisable to add fodder yeast (up to 5%), molasses (1-3%) which are necessary for enrichment with group B vitamins, as meal protein sources of meal, meal (up to 15-20%), as well as fish and meat and bone meal (3-5%).
Feeding chickens of meat breeds of hens (broilers) in connection with the peculiarities of their growth and development is divided into three periods: from 1-4 days of age. pre-launch diet, from 5-28 days. starting and from the 29-56-day. finishing. The first of them should contain readily soluble nutrients, the second. biologically active and third. provide a high content of metabolic energy.
The broiler should consume the following amount of feed (by volume) daily: in the first week. 12-15 g, in the second. 20, in the third. 40-45, the fourth. 60-65, fifth 75-85, seventh. 90-100, in the eighth week. 100-110 g per day, which makes it possible to achieve a live weight of 1500-1700 g with a feed consumption of 2.2-2.5 kg per 1 kg of live weight.
Drawing up a diet for laying hens. In the morning, the chickens are given the Uz of the daily norm of grain, after 2 hours a wet mash. At night, they also feed grain; in cold weather it is given in large quantities. Dry flour mixture, mineral feed set in separate feeders and add as necessary. The following components (%) should be included in the dry flour mixture: yellow corn. 40, barley. 20, wheat bran. 10, sunflower meal. 10, hydrolytic yeast. 3, fish meal. 5, meat and bone meal. 5, clover flour-3, shell. 2, bone meal 1.5, salt. 0.5.
The following feed mixtures are recommended for chickens (per head in total), grain. 65, flour mixture. 40, boiled potatoes 40, cake. 10, dry nettle. 7, fresh herbs 7. chalk, shell and more. 4,5, crushed bones, bone meal. 1.5, salt. 0.5, yogurt, reverse 50, slaughter rounds. 20.
When feeding chickens in farms where it is not possible to provide poultry with high-quality feeds, feeds produced inside the farm are widely used (root crops, tops, waste from the processing of fruits and vegetables; good quality hay, silage, twig feed are harvested for the winter period). 
Type and methods of feeding poultry
Depending on the technology of preparation of feed for feeding, dry, wet and combined methods of feeding are distinguished.
With the dry method of feeding, birds are fed full feed in loose or granular form. Feeding dry feeds makes it possible to completely mechanize the distribution of feeds, and this, in turn, significantly increases labor productivity and production culture.
With a wet feeding method, concentrated feeds are moistened with skim milk, whey, meat broth, water. Shredded green and succulent feeds are also used for feeding. An analysis of the practical experience of this method of feeding shows that moistening the feed contributes to better absorption of nutrients. At a cost, such a diet is usually cheaper, since it often uses waste from various technical industries and local feed, the cost of which is lower than the cost of full feed.
The disadvantage of such feeding is that it requires compliance with increased requirements for feeding hygiene. In this case, it is necessary to strictly regulate the one-time feeding of the food so that the bird eats all the food completely for 30-40 minutes. A longer stay of the moist agitator in the feeders leads to its acidification and the development of undesirable microbiological processes, which especially in the summer period leads to the occurrence of gastrointestinal diseases in the bird, increasing the risk of developing pathogenic microflora. [eight]
Mode and hygiene of poultry feeding
Chickens are fed frequently. 5-6 times a day, adult chickens. twice, and in winter they need to feed grain for the night, as it is slowly digested.
The basic hygiene rules for feeding birds are as follows.
It is undesirable to give the grain in dry form mixed with other feeds, as the chickens get used to the consumption of grain and leave the rest of the feed uneaten.
Food should be fresh, not musty, not sour. If you are not sure about the freshness of the feed, then it is better to boil it. After feeding the soft boiled food to the bird, the feeders must be cleaned of residual food and washed. This is especially important in the summer to prevent intestinal dysfunction. In the morning it is better to give soft food. a mixture of flour, boiled potatoes, fodder beets, in the evening. grain mix.
To a soft feed, it is desirable to add a small amount of substances containing calcium, macro. and trace elements and others, for example, slaked lime powder, crushed eggshell, shell, crushed bone.
Near the house, it is desirable to have a small mound of gravel mixed with sand and limestone. To distribute green food, it is necessary to make a feeder in the form of a box, in which the walls are a coarse mesh through which the chickens peck the food. Such a feeder prevents the spread of greens, its trampling.
Large root tubers and cabbage are hung on a nail driven into the wall of the house, which increases the hygiene of their feeding.
All animal feed that has not undergone heat treatment must be boiled before feeding to destroy pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora. One of the biological features of chickens is ability. to eat their own litter (about 1.5 g per day), therefore it is better when the bird litter pecks with litter (peat, straw).
Feeding animal feed (animal meat, fish), it is advisable to check for the absence of sharp bones, which can lead to perforation of the stomach and death of the bird.